Career[ edit ] After earning a Ph. She was a professor at Princeton University from to and then became a professor at New York University. Anthropology of science and feminism[ edit ] Martin focuses the anthropology of science and analyzes science from a feminist perspective. Her work includes detailed analysis on human reproduction and related things.
How Science has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles, culture shapes how even biological scientists describe what they discover about the natural world.
Further, she examines the scientific accounts of reproductive technology and explains how gender stereotypes are hidden with scientific language of biology.
Through an analysis on the representation of the egg and the sperm, Martin notes a marked contrast between the descriptions of each reproductive organ. The sperm is commonly illustrated as the superior reproductive organ while the egg is seen as the degenerate and expelling reproductive part.
It is evident, these illustrations imply typical gender stereotypes and continue to reproduce them through these powerful representations. In addition, implanting of social imagery on representations of nature lays a firm basis for reproducing exactly the same imagery as natural explanations of social phenomena.
Implementing socially constructed stereotypes in natural science constitutes a powerful message suggesting these ideas are natural and beyond alteration.
Therefore if natural science is projecting messages and illustrations that support and enhance social constructions, it is only likely that these ideals will be internalized by society and its individuals.
The internalization of socially constructed stereotypes is further reproduced in the ways our bodies behave. Males and females have adapted to occupy their space in different ways. For example, females commonly sit with their legs crossed while males usually sit with their legs spread further apart, therefore occupying more space.
It is small subconscious acts such as the ways individual genders carry themselves that portray the internalization of stereotypical notions. Further, gender stereotypes can be influential on the sensory perception. For example, the sense of touch has been historically developed in accordance with gender associations.
Females are commonly associated with soft touch while males are commonly associated with a rough or tougher sense of touch. The sensory perception of sound has also been shaped by gender specifications.
Loud and harsh sounds carry an underlying male connotation to it, while soft and soothing sounds are often perceived as more feminine. While these associations are not natural, they have been constructed and internalized through the implementation of gender specific stereotypes.
|Upcoming Events||The theory of the human body is always a part of a fantasy. If this were so, we would be learning about more than the natural world in high school biology class; we would be learning about cultural beliefs and practices as if they were part of nature.|
Further, as individuals internalize stereotypes, they begin to behave according to these misconceptions ultimately shaping how their bodies operate in space.
The process of implementing gender specific stereotypes can have extreme social consequences. It goes beyond the perception of reproductive organs as passive or active. It is the projection of cultural imagery that not only influences our understanding of the world and nature, but influences our actions and behaviors ultimately making them seem as natural.
As Martin suggests, it is essential to become aware of the socially constructed imagery that exists as by becoming aware of its implications, we gain the power to de-naturalize the social conventions about gender.Mar 07, · Through an analysis on the representation of the egg and the sperm, Martin notes a marked contrast between the descriptions of each reproductive organ.
The sperm is commonly illustrated as the superior reproductive organ while the egg is seen as the degenerate and expelling reproductive part. A bold reappraisal of science and society, The Woman in the Body explores the different ways that women's reproduction is seen in American culture/5. Emily Martin, in her article “The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles,” (Signs 16(3), , p.
) critiques the way biological texts generally portray sperm as active, brave adventurers and eggs as passive damsels waiting for a sperm to save her lest she be flushed out as waste during menstruation.
Sep 29, · The Egg and the Sperm by Emily Martin I'm getting suspicious that this article isn't about how biologists are influenced by our culture to create egg/sperm narratives that are biased against women; it's how militant feminists are influenced by feminism to see misogyny everywhere.
Is there a problem with sperm being . Sep 29, · Endowing egg and sperm with intentional action, a key aspect of personhood in our culture, lays the foundation for the point of viability being pushed back to the moment of fertilization. An Analysis of How Science is Being Part of Culture in The Essay "The Egg and The Sperm" by Emily Martins.