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Medical responses[ edit ] Epidemics of the 19th century were faced without the medical advances that made 20th-century epidemics much more rare and less lethal. Micro-organisms viruses and bacteria had been discovered in the 18th century, but it was not until the late 19th century that the experiments of Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation conclusively, allowing germ theory and Robert Koch 's discovery of micro-organisms as the cause of disease transmission.
Thus throughout the majority of the 19th century, there was only the most basic, common sense understanding of the causes, amelioration and treatment of epidemic disease. The late 19th century was the beginning of widespread use of vaccines.
Sulfonamides did not appear untiland penicillindiscovered inwas not available as a treatment until Hand bill from the New York City Board of Health—the outdated public health advice demonstrates the lack of understanding of the disease and its actual causative factors During the second cholera pandemic of —, the scientific community varied in its beliefs about its causes.
In France doctors believed cholera was associated with the poverty of certain communities or poor environment. Russians believed the disease was contagious and quarantined their citizens. The United States believed that cholera was brought by recent immigrants, specifically the Irish.
Lastly, some British thought the disease might rise from divine intervention. They blamed their sanitation practices. The prevalence of the disease in the South in areas of black populations convinced United States scientists that cholera was associated with African Americans.
Current researchers note they lived near the waterways by which travelers and ships carried the disease and their populations were underserved with sanitation infrastructure and health care. His study proved contaminated water was the main agent spreading cholera, although he did not identify the contaminant.
Though Filippo Pacini had isolated Vibrio cholerae as the causative agent for cholera that year, it would be many years before miasma theory would fall out of favor.
Disinfection team in the cholera outbreak in Hamburg In London, in June a localized epidemic in the East End claimed 5, lives, just as the city was completing construction of its major sewage and water treatment systems.
William Farrusing the work of John Snow, et al. Quick action prevented further deaths.
During the 19th century, cholera spread across the world from its original reservoir in the Ganges delta in India. Six subsequent pandemics killed millions of people across all continents. The current (seventh) pandemic started in South Asia in , and reached Africa in and the Americas in 1 As a result, many of America’s largest urban areas like New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington DC fell prey to a rash of infectious diseases in the middle and end of the nineteenth century. This register, found tucked into a family Bible, catalogs childhood diseases and vaccinations of the nine siblings in the Fisher family, who lived in Philadelphia in the nineteenth century.
His work helped to establish the germ theory of disease. Prior to this time, many physicians believed that microorganisms were spontaneously generated, and disease was caused by direct exposure to filth and decay.
Koch helped establish that the disease was more specifically contagious and was transmittable through contaminated water supply.
The fifth was the last serious European cholera outbreak, as cities improved their sanitation and water systems. Cholera outbreaks and pandemics Cholera bacteria Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is transmitted primarily by drinking water or eating food  that has been contaminated by the cholera bacterium.
The bacteria multiply in the small intestine;  the feces waste product of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms, can pass on the disease if it contacts the water supply by any means. Cholera came in seven waves, the last two of which occurred in the 20th century.
The first cholera pandemic started inspread across India by and extended to Southeast Asia and Central Europelasting until A second cholera pandemic began inreached Russia, causing the Cholera Riots.
It hit Russia hardest, with over one million deaths. Incholera struck Meccakilling over 15,Infectious disease has always been a presence in Anglo-American North America, from the dysentery and fevers in 17th-century settlements to the smallpox and diphtheria of the early 18th century, the yellow fever and cholera of the late 18th and 19th centuries, and the polio and influenza of the 20th century.
This online collection offers important historical perspectives on the science and public policy of epidemiology today and contributes to the understanding of the global, social–history, and public–policy implications of diseases. Diseases In 19th Century America Essay (TB), influenza, measles, scarlet fever, malaria, and diphtheria.
The average American city during the 19th century was a breeding ground for the frequent epidemics that occurred, killing thousands.
Port cities were particularly susceptible to epidemics of infectious disease. Toward the end of the 19th century, as people searched for a way to control infectious diseases, the germ theory of disease was introduced. It became clear that impure water, crowding, poor housing, spoiled food, and other environmental conditions were contributing to high rates of disease in cities.
This register, found tucked into a family Bible, catalogs childhood diseases and vaccinations of the nine siblings in the Fisher family, who lived in Philadelphia in the nineteenth century. In America, especially, a chronic inflammation of, and hypersecretion from the membranes of nose or air passages.
in England, an acute influenza, resulting from a cold and attended with cough, thirst, lassitude and watery eyes; also, the cold itself.