Some of these pages may no longer be current; I would appreciate being notified about any substantive change in content. Portions of these text excerpts that I consider to be scientifically meaningless, absurd, incorrect, or misleading, or for which no credible evidence is available, are written in "purple prose". Not surprisingly, the promoters and vendors of these dubious products tend to come and go often, it appears, in the middle of the night!
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message Infrared radiation can be used as a deliberate heating source.
For example, it is used in infrared saunas to heat the occupants. It may also be used in other heating applications, such as to remove ice from the wings of aircraft de-icing. Infrared heating is also becoming more popular in industrial manufacturing processes, e.
In these applications, infrared heaters replace convection ovens and contact heating.
Efficiency is achieved by matching the wavelength of the infrared heater to the absorption characteristics of the material. Radiative cooling A variety of technologies or proposed technologies take advantage of infrared emissions to cool buildings or other systems.
Consumer IR IR data transmission is also employed in short-range communication among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes LEDs to emit infrared radiation that is focused by a plastic lens into a narrow beam.
The beam is modulatedi. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current.
It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, and filters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density.
IR does not penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in adjoining rooms. Infrared is the most common way for remote controls to command appliances.
IR data transmission of encoded audio versions of printed signs is being researched as an aid for visually impaired people through the RIAS Remote Infrared Audible Signage project.
Transmitting IR data from one device to another is sometimes referred to as beaming. Spectroscopy[ edit ] Infrared vibrational spectroscopy see also near-infrared spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to identify molecules by analysis of their constituent bonds.
Each chemical bond in a molecule vibrates at a frequency characteristic of that bond. A group of atoms in a molecule e. If an oscillation leads to a change in dipole in the molecule then it will absorb a photon that has the same frequency. The vibrational frequencies of most molecules correspond to the frequencies of infrared light.
A spectrum of all the frequencies of absorption in a sample is recorded. Thin film metrology[ edit ] In the semiconductor industry, infrared light can be used to characterize materials such as thin films and periodic trench structures. By measuring the reflectance of light from the surface of a semiconductor wafer, the index of refraction n and the extinction Coefficient k can be determined via the Forouhi-Bloomer dispersion equations.
The reflectance from the infrared light can also be used to determine the critical dimension, depth, and sidewall angle of high aspect ratio trench structures. A frontal system can be seen in the Gulf of Mexico with embedded Cumulonimbus cloud.
Shallower Cumulus and Stratocumulus can be seen off the Eastern Seaboard. Weather satellites equipped with scanning radiometers produce thermal or infrared images, which can then enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types, to calculate land and surface water temperatures, and to locate ocean surface features.
The scanning is typically in the range High, cold ice clouds such as Cirrus or Cumulonimbus show up bright white, lower warmer clouds such as Stratus or Stratocumulus show up as grey with intermediate clouds shaded accordingly.
Hot land surfaces will show up as dark-grey or black. One disadvantage of infrared imagery is that low cloud such as stratus or fog can be a similar temperature to the surrounding land or sea surface and does not show up.
However, using the difference in brightness of the IR4 channel The main advantage of infrared is that images can be produced at night, allowing a continuous sequence of weather to be studied.
These infrared pictures can depict ocean eddies or vortices and map currents such as the Gulf Stream, which are valuable to the shipping industry.
Fishermen and farmers are interested in knowing land and water temperatures to protect their crops against frost or increase their catch from the sea.
Using color-digitized techniques, the gray-shaded thermal images can be converted to color for easier identification of desired information. The main water vapour channel at 6.
Climatology[ edit ] In the field of climatology, atmospheric infrared radiation is monitored to detect trends in the energy exchange between the earth and the atmosphere.
It is one of the primary parameters studied in research into global warmingtogether with solar radiation. Schematic of the greenhouse effect A pyrgeometer is utilized in this field of research to perform continuous outdoor measurements.This document was prepared for the middle school math teachers who are taking part in Project Skymath.
It is also hoped that the general public will find it interesting. Here’s the math: Passive House walls and windows cost more than code construction, while Passive House heating systems cost less. On balance, Passive House construction costs up to 10% more than code.
ALP Utilities is a city owned utility company that is committed to providing the most reliable service for electric, water and business fiber-optic communications at .
It Was the Summer of HVAC.
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|Restoring the Old Way of Warming: Heating People, not Places - LOW-TECH MAGAZINE||A native of Climax, Minn. Following his work at MDU, Cash started in creative services at Basin Electric, the largest generation and transmission electric cooperative in the nation.|
|caninariojana.com » Questions and Answers||In the following descriptions of the various products, text shown in "comic"-style type is quoted verbatim from a manufacturer's or sales Web page, with any excisions noted. Some of these pages may no longer be current; I would appreciate being notified about any substantive change in content.|
October 29, AHR in the NEWS. Energy Dep’t Advances Some Efficiency Standards as Delays Remain (1) October 17, What Causes the Greenhouse Effect? June 13th, by Roy W. Spencer, Ph. D. Here’s the math: Passive House walls and windows cost more than code construction, while Passive House heating systems cost less.
On balance, Passive .