Universities and colleges, professors, organizations, public officials, advocates, bloggers and websites as well as others all weigh in heavily for giving advice on how to achieve success.
In the decades that followed independence, they worked to shape the cultural, political, and economic character of the postcolonial state. Some worked against the challenges of continued European cultural and political hegemony, while others worked with European powers in order to protect their interests and maintain control over economic and political resources.
Decolonization, then, was a process as well as a historical period. Yet the nations and regions of Africa experienced it with varying degrees of success. Byformal European political control had given way to African self-rule—except in South Africa.
Culturally and politically, however, the legacy of European dominance remained evident in the national borders, political infrastructures, education systems, national languages, economies, and trade networks of each nation. Ultimately, decolonization produced moments of inspiration and promise, yet failed to transform African economies and political structures to bring about true autonomy and development.
The Year of Africa "Most of our weaknesses," declared Kenneth Kaunda, first president of Zambia, in a March speech, "derive from lack of finance, trained personnel, etc.
We are left with no choice but to fall on either the east or west, or indeed, on both of them. When decolonization began, there were reasons for optimism. The year was heralded throughout Africa and the West as "the Year of Africa" for the inspiring change that swept the continent.
During that year, the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa shook the world to awaken to the horrors of white minority rule as South African police fired into a crowd of peaceful black protesters, killing sixty-nine in full view of photographers and reporters.
Also inseventeen African territories gained independence from the strong arm of European colonial rule. These seventeen nations joined the United Nation's General Assembly and gave greater voice to the non-Western world.
Fully recognizing the potential for the remarkable change that African independence could bring to global politics, on February 3,Harold Macmillan, prime minister of Great Britain from todelivered his famous speech, "Wind of Change," to the South African parliament.
The Cold War It was this fear of Soviet influence in Africa, particularly on the part of the United States, that created such a major problem for African nations. Western powers viewed African independence through the lens of the Cold War, which rendered African leaders as either pro-West or pro-East; there was little acceptable middle ground.
Along these lines, in his speech on the occasion of Kenya's independence from Britain inPrime Minister Jomo Kenyatta in power from to declared: The aim of my government which starts today is not to be pro-left or pro-right.
We shall pursue the task of national building in friendship with the rest of the world. Nobody will ever be allowed to tell us, to tell me: We shall remain free and whoever wants friendship with us must be a real friend.
Nonetheless, as Africans declared themselves nonaligned, pro-West, or Marxist sympathizers, Cold War politics deprived them of the freedom to truly shape their political paths. Combined with the strong residue of the colonial political structure, African leaders designed their internal and external politics mindful of the Western powers' vigilance against socialist or communist influences.
Although Western European powers granted aid to African nations, they also coerced governments to support their agendas and instigated and aided coups against democratically elected governments. They also fomented civil unrest to ensure that governments friendly to their Cold War agenda remained in power and those that were not were removed by political machinations or assassination.
In the Congo, for example, Joseph Mobutu took a strong anti-communist position and was subsequently rewarded by Western powers. It mattered little that in he helped orchestrate the coup that removed and ultimately brought about the murder of Patrice Lumumba, was among the most anti-democratic leaders on the continent, and siphoned Western aid and revenue from the nation's natural resources into personal accounts.
Mobutu's rise to power and economic and political damage to Congo in the process—with the help of his Western allies—demonstrates that the politics of the Cold War, more than anything else, defined the successes and failures of African decolonization. Neo Colonialism In the s, Frantz Fanon, the anti-colonial intellectual and psychoanalyst, among others, described neo-colonialism as the continued exploitation of the continent from outside and within, together with European political intervention during the post-independence years.Adequate and equitable resources are important to the future success and development of Black students.
Far too often, Black students—males in particular—are unnecessarily placed in special education classes, while the number of Black students who take honors and advanced courses remains significantly below that of other groups. Despite the challenges faced at school, some black African learners, specifically from working-class rural areas, do manage to pass Grade 12 with a university entrance qualification.
Feb 07, · The economic gap within the African-American community is one of the most important factors in the rise of Black Lives Matter, led by a new generation of college graduates and students.
Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News. Ten months after Democrats took over the Capitol and the first African-American president moved into the White House, black lawmakers are in control of some of the most powerful positions in Congress – and face new challenges to using their long-sought influence.
Each of these organizations face challenges every day and the leaders of these agencies must deal with these challenges (Duelin, ). The types of criminal justice leaders range from police chiefs and sheriffs to prison superintendents, and heads of government, state, or local task forces.