Theories of human behavior

In addition, he teaches industry innovators how to use his models and methods in Behavior Design. The purpose of his research and teaching is to to help millions of people improve their lives. BJ is the author of Persuasive Technology: He is the co-editor of Mobile Persuasion:

Theories of human behavior

William James and William McDougall made lists of instincts that were seem as mainsprings of all kinds of behaviors, simple and complex. Later, Murray made another classification of human needs. Murray, however, distinguished a directional aspect and an arousal component that actually kicks the behavior off and that can be motivated in a number of ways.

Needs, in Murray's concepts, are hypothetical constructs directing behavior toward certain goals, or end states. Classifications of needs, as provided by McDougall or Murray look similar to classifications of elements in chemistry, but lack their strictly defined structure and usefulness.

A structural principle is needed to explain the dynamic interactions of needs and their fulfillments. Interrelationships between needs are specified, which are missing in McDougall's and Murray's systems. According to Maslow, the physiological needs e.

Recently, the need to know and to understand, and aesthetic needs are added to the list Maslow, The need to know and to understand is comparable to Berlyne's epistemic behavior.

Developmental theories focus on how behavior changes and stays the same across the life cycle. Stage theories are usually characterized by the following: Human development occurs in clearly defined stages Each stage of life is . Articles published on this site are handouts/class notes prepared by the editors based on the references cited. Contents provided in these articles are meant for general information only, and are not suggested as replacement to standard references. Human populations relocate for various reasons, and social scientists have explained these through a variety of theories. Explore several reasons.

Maslow's basic needs Maslow, are thought to be structured in such a way that the satisfaction or gratification of the lower-order needs leads to the activation of the next higher-order need in the hierarchy. A distinction is sometimes made between deficiency and growth needs.


Needs for belongingness, love, and self-actualization are referred to as growth needs; the others are deficiency needs. To achieve growth needs, deficiency needs must first be satisfied. This may be compared with Herzberg's hygienic and motivating factors in his job satisfaction theory.

BJ Fogg's Behavior Model

A deficiency in the hygienic factors creates dissatisfaction, while fulfillment of these factors does not create satisfaction. The motivating factors, when fulfilled, give rise to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction, and probably also consumer satisfaction, is not measurable on a simple bipolar scale but consists of two more or less independent sets of factors.

In consumer research, we may distinguish between necessary product attributes hygienic factors and motivating product attributes. Absence of necessary attributes gives rise to dissatisfaction, while the presence of motivating attributes leads to satisfaction.

Nonetheless, the findings remain largely controversial; and an evaluation of interdisciplinary approaches is rare Jacoby, A number of factors seem to have favored the appeal of Maslow's need hierarchy, while the lack of foresight among researchers and the absence of standardized measurement techniques seem to have forestalled the comprehensive evaluation of the interdisciplinary approaches.

Maslow's approach is a theory of motivation, in that it links basic needs-motives to general behavior Wahba and Bridwell, At times, the findings have been used to support two apparently contradictory hypotheses.

Behavioural change theories - Wikipedia

For instance, Maslow postulated that i gratification of the self-actualization need results in an increase of its importance rather than a decrease, and also that ii a long-time deprivation of a need may create a fixation for that need. Maslow noted the exception to his model; that, it is possible for higher-order needs to emerge not after gratification of the next-lower need, but after long-time deprivation Maslow, The state of affairs remains that Maslow's need hierarchy, and his propositions regarding gratification and activation, especially in the self-actualization stage, remain controversial.

His need hierarchy is by no means definitive, and is rather out of focus in comparison with the role of learning, perception, values, and expectations in human behavior Atkinson, Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment presents a current and comprehensive examination of human behavior using a multidimensional framework.

Author Elizabeth D. Hutchison explores the biological dimension and the social factors that affect human development and behavior, encouraging readers to connect their own personal experiences with social trends in order to .

What Causes Behavior Change?

Theories of Behavior Change | CommGAP Theories of Behavior Change Defining Theories of Behavior Change Behavior change is often a goal for staff working directly with constituents, organizations, governments. Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.

Theories of human behavior

National Training Collaborative for Social Marketing Session Seven Behavioral Determinant and Theories Session Objectives Describe factors that influence behavior Describe how identification of doers / nondoers can influence decisions List reasons why research to identify behavioral determinants is important Identify potential .

Miscellaneous Sites. ACT Research Home Page- The ACT group is led by John Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University and is concerned with the ACT theory and architecture of goal of this research is to understand how people acquire and organize knowledge and produce intelligent behavior.

A theory may explain human behavior, for example, by describing how humans interact or how humans react to certain stimuli.

Social work practice models describe how social workers can implement theories. Practice models provide social workers with a blueprint of how to help others based on the underlying social work theory.

Theories Used in Social Work Practice & Practice Models